Foot and Ankle Complaints

Achilles Tendon Disorders

The Achilles tendon is a thick band of fibrous tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is found at the back of the leg and works by pushing the foot down and raising the heel.


A bunion (medically referred to as hallux valgus) is often described as a bump on the side of the big toe. This is accompanied by outward deviation of the 1st toe. Bunions mainly affect the 1st toe but can affect the little toe as well (then called a bunnionette).


Flatfoot or medically referred to as pes planus is a condition where there is partial or total collapse (loss) of the arch. This can be flexible ie. arch is present when not weight-bearing or rigid ie. when it remains flat.


Hammertoe is a bending deformity of one or both joints of the second, third, fourth or fifth toes. This abnormal bending can put pressure on the toe when wearing shoes, causing problems to develop.

Heel Pain

The most common cause of heel pain is a condition called plantar fasciitis. This is when there is inflammation of the tissue that attach to the heel bone (calcaneus).

Morton’s Neuroma

A neuroma is scarring / thickening of nerve tissue that occurs in the foot. The most common neuroma in the foot is a Morton’s neuroma, which occurs between the third and fourth toes. It is sometimes referred to as an interdigital neuroma.

Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

Osteoarthritis is a condition characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage in one or more joints. Cartilage (the connective tissue found at the end of the bones in the joints) protects and cushions the bones during movement. When cartilage deteriorates or is lost, symptoms develop that can restrict one’s ability to easily perform daily activities.